# A course in modern geometries pdf

Projecting a sphere to a course in modern geometries pdf plane. In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry. As Euclidean geometry lies at the intersection of metric geometry and affine geometry, non-Euclidean geometry arises when either the metric requirement is relaxed, or the parallel postulate is replaced with an alternative one.

In the latter case one obtains hyperbolic geometry and elliptic geometry, the traditional non-Euclidean geometries. When the metric requirement is relaxed, then there are affine planes associated with the planar algebras which give rise to kinematic geometries that have also been called non-Euclidean geometry. The essential difference between the metric geometries is the nature of parallel lines. Euclid’s fifth postulate, the parallel postulate, is equivalent to Playfair’s postulate, which states that, within a two-dimensional plane, for any given line ℓ and a point A, which is not on ℓ, there is exactly one line through A that does not intersect ℓ.

In hyperbolic geometry, by contrast, there are infinitely many lines through A not intersecting ℓ, while in elliptic geometry, any line through A intersects ℓ. In elliptic geometry the lines “curve toward” each other and intersect. Euclidean geometry, named after the Greek mathematician Euclid, includes some of the oldest known mathematics, and geometries that deviated from this were not widely accepted as legitimate until the 19th century. The debate that eventually led to the discovery of the non-Euclidean geometries began almost as soon as Euclid’s work Elements was written.

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