For discrete circuitry, see Discrete circuit. With amplification, logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed, allowing advanced digital logic design pdf construction of a physical model of all of Boolean logic, and therefore, all of the algorithms and mathematics that can be described with Boolean logic. MOSFETs is simpler and more efficient than the sum of the individual gates.

In reversible logic, Toffoli gates are used. RTL gates can be cascaded indefinitely to produce more complex logic functions. RTL gates were used in early integrated circuits.

To reduce power consumption still further, most contemporary chip implementations of digital systems now use CMOS logic. MOSFET devices to achieve a high speed with low power dissipation. For small-scale logic, designers now use prefabricated logic gates from families of devices such as the TTL 7400 series by Texas Instruments, the CMOS 4000 series by RCA, and their more recent descendants. Increasingly, these fixed-function logic gates are being replaced by programmable logic devices, which allow designers to pack a large number of mixed logic gates into a single integrated circuit.

Exactly the same as Diode Logic but can perform at a higher speed. Uses neon bulbs or 3 element neon trigger tubes to perform logic.

Performed by semiconductor diodes and small ferrite toroidal cores for moderate speed and moderate power level. Uses thyristors and SCRs to perform logic operations where high current and or high voltages are required.

Uses transistors switching between bottom saturated and tunnel states to perform logic, depends upon use of transistors with carefully controlled parameters. Economical but tends to be susceptible to noise because of the lower voltage levels employed. Often considered to be the father to modern TTL logic. Uses transistors to perform logic but biasing is from constant current sources to prevent saturation and allow extremely fast switching.

Has high noise immunity despite fairly low logic levels. Uses the tunnelable q-bits for synthesizng the binary logic bits. This is a transistorless, currentless, junctionless binary logic syntheeis technique.