Map of the United States with Texas highlighted. Texas declared its secession from the United States of America on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States on American government textbook pdf magruder’s 2, 1861, after it replaced its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy.
As with those of other States, the Declaration was not recognized by the United States government at Washington. Some Texan military units fought in the Civil War east of the Mississippi River, but Texas was most useful for supplying soldiers and horses for Confederate forces. Texas’ supply role lasted until mid-1863, after which time Union gunboats controlled the Mississippi River, making large transfers of men, horses or cattle impossible. Some cotton was sold in Mexico, but most of the crop became useless because of the Union naval blockade of Galveston, Houston, and other ports.
In the late winter of 1860, Texan counties sent delegates to a special convention to debate the merits of secession. The convention adopted an “Ordinance of Secession” by a vote of 166 to 8, which was ratified by a popular referendum on February 23.
Separately from the Ordinance of Secession, which was considered a legal document, Texas also issued a declaration of causes spelling out the rationale for declaring secession. The document specifies several reasons for secession, including its solidarity with its “sister slave-holding States,” the U.