A beam is a structural element that primarily resists loads applied laterally to the beam’s axis. Its mode of deflection is primarily by bending. The loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at beams on elastic foundation pdf beam’s support points. The total effect of all the forces acting on the beam is to produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam, that in turn induce internal stresses, strains and deflections of the beam.
Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but any structures such as automotive automobile frames, aircraft components, machine frames, and other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed to carry lateral loads are analyzed in a similar fashion. Historically beams were squared timbers but are also metal, stone, or combinations of wood and metal such as a flitch beam.
The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members and eventually to ground. In light frame construction, joists may rest on beams. In carpentry, a beam is called a plate as in a sill plate or wall plate, beam as in a summer beam or dragon beam. Simply supported – a beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have no moment resistance.