Exile of Napoleon I to St. French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against david thompson europe since napoleon pdf fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, which is considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British inflicted a severe defeat in October 1805 upon the joint Franco-Spanish navy, securing British control of the seas and preventing the invasion of Britain itself.
Prussian concerns about increasing French power led to a resumption of war in October 1806. Napoleon quickly defeated the Prussians, and defeated Russia in June 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. 1809, and this coalition was soon defeated. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon invaded Iberia, declaring his brother Joseph king of Spain in 1808.
The Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, and, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, Russia, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade, routinely violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812. The resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.