Islamic democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Islamic principles to public policy within a democratic framework. Islamic political theory specifies three democracy in islam pdf features of an Islamic democracy: leaders must be elected by the people, subject to sharia and committed to practicing “shura”, a special form of consultation practiced by Muhammad, which one can find in various hadiths, with their community. Countries which fulfill the three basic features include Afghanistan, Iran, and Malaysia. Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates are examples of countries that do adhere to the principles of Islamic democracy.
The expression of Islamic democracy is different in the Muslim majority countries, as sharia interpretations vary from country to country, and the use of sharia is more comprehensive in countries in which sharia forms the basis for state laws. The concepts of liberalism and democratic participation were already present in the medieval Islamic world.
It can be viewed similar to how the prime minister is chosen in many nations. In the early Islamic Caliphate, the head of state, the Caliph, had a position based on the notion of a successor to Muhammad’s political authority, who, according to Sunnis, were ideally elected by the people or their representatives, as was the case for the election of Abu Bakr, Umar bin Alkhattab, Uthman, and Ali as Caliph. After the Rashidun Caliphs, later Caliphates during the Islamic Golden Age had a much lesser degree of democratic participation, but since “no one was superior to anyone else except on the basis of piety and virtue” in Islam, and following the example of Muhammad, later Islamic rulers often held public consultations with the people in their affairs.