Direct and indirect methods of measuring microbial growth pdf

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Compaction can adversely affect nearly all physical, chemical and biological properties and functions of soil. Together with soil erosion, it is regarded as the “costliest and most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture. In agriculture, soil compaction is a complex problem in which soil, crops, weather and machinery interact. External pressure due to the use of heavy machinery and inappropriate soil management can lead to the compaction of subsoil, creating impermeable layers within the direct and indirect methods of measuring microbial growth pdf that restrict water and nutrient cycles.


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