These statements include the income statement, balance sheet, statement of cash flows, and a statement of changes in equity. Financial statement analysis is a method or process involving specific techniques for evaluating risks, performance, financial health, and future prospects of an organization. It financial statement analysis book pdf used by a variety of stakeholders, such as credit and equity investors, the government, the public, and decision-makers within the organization.
These stakeholders have different interests and apply a variety of different techniques to meet their needs. For example, equity investors are interested in the long-term earnings power of the organization and perhaps the sustainability and growth of dividend payments. Historical information combined with a series of assumptions and adjustments to the financial information may be used to project future performance.
The Chartered Financial Analyst designation is available for professional financial analysts. Benjamin Graham and David Dodd first published their influential book “Security Analysis” in 1934. A central premise of their book is that the market’s pricing mechanism for financial securities such as stocks and bonds is based upon faulty and irrational analytical processes performed by many market participants. This results in the market price of a security only occasionally coinciding with the intrinsic value around which the price tends to fluctuate.
Investor Warren Buffett is a well-known supporter of Graham and Dodd’s philosophy. The latter is the primary realm of financial statement analysis.
On the basis of these three analyses the intrinsic value of the security is determined. Horizontal analysis compares financial information over time, typically from past quarters or years. Horizontal analysis is performed by comparing financial data from a past statement, such as the income statement.
When comparing this past information one will want to look for variations such as higher or lower earnings. Vertical analysis is a percentage analysis of financial statements.
Each line item listed in the financial statement is listed as the percentage of another line item. For example, on an income statement each line item will be listed as a percentage of gross sales. This technique is also referred to as normalization or common-sizing.