Typical aerodynamic teardrop shape, assuming a viscous medium passing from left to right, the diagram shows the pressure distribution as the thickness of the black line and shows the velocity in fluid flow equations pdf boundary layer as the violet triangles. The green vortex generators prompt the transition to turbulent flow and prevent back-flow also called flow separation from the high-pressure region in the back.
The surface in front is as smooth as possible or even employs shark-like skin, as any turbulence here increases the energy of the airflow. The truncation on the right, known as a Kammback, also prevents backflow from the high-pressure region in the back across the spoilers to the convergent part. Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and modelling fission weapon detonation.
Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines—that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves the calculation of various properties of the fluid, such as flow velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as functions of space and time. Before the twentieth century, hydrodynamics was synonymous with fluid dynamics.
This is still reflected in names of some fluid dynamics topics, like magnetohydrodynamics and hydrodynamic stability, both of which can also be applied to gases. These are based on classical mechanics and are modified in quantum mechanics and general relativity.
They are expressed using the Reynolds transport theorem. Fluids are composed of molecules that collide with one another and solid objects.