India was part of Gondwna and bordered to the north by the Cimmerian Superterrane. Fig 2: The earth at geology of nepal pdf Permian-Triassic boundary. The opening of the Neotethys separates the Cimmeridian Superterrane from Gondwana.
Fig 3: The earth in the Cretaceous. The Cimmeridian Superterrane has accreted to Mega Laurasia, the oceanic crust of the Neotethys is subducted to the north along the Dras volcanic arc, the Shigatze Ocean opens as a consequence of back-arc spreading, India is separated from Africa and E. Gondwana and the Indian Ocean opens.
Fig 4: The northward drift of India from 71 Ma ago to present time. Note the simultaneous counter-clockwise rotation of India. Collision of the Indian continent with Eurasia occurred at about 550 million years ago Ma. The geology of the Himalaya is a record of the most dramatic and visible creations of modern plate tectonic forces.
The Himalayas, which stretch over 2400 km between the Namche Barwa syntaxis in Tibet and the Nanga Parbat syntaxis in India, are the result of an ongoing orogeny — the result of a collision between two continental tectonic plates. This immense mountain range was formed by tectonic forces and sculpted by weathering and erosion. The Himalaya-Tibet region supplies fresh water for more than one-fifth of the world population, and accounts for a quarter of the global sedimentary budget.
This last feature earned the Himalaya its name, originating from the Sanskrit for “the abode of the snow”. During that period, the northern part of India was affected by a late phase of the Pan-African orogeny which is marked by an unconformity between Ordovician continental conglomerates and the underlying Cambrian marine sediments. Numerous granitic intrusions dated at around 500 Ma are also attributed to this event.