For the rules of the English language, see English grammatical structures in english pdf. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.
For linguists, grammar refers to cognitive information underlying language use. Speakers of a language have a set of internalized rules for using that language. These rules constitute grammar, and the vast majority of the information in the grammar is—at least in the case of one’s native language—acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers. The term “grammar” can also be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behaviour of a group of speakers.
The term “English grammar”, therefore, may have several meanings. It may refer to the whole of English grammar, that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case, the term encompasses a great deal of variation.
A specific description, study or analysis of such rules may also be referred to as a grammar. A fully explicit grammar that exhaustively describes the grammatical constructions of a language is called a descriptive grammar.
This kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while promoting others. For example, preposition stranding occurs widely in Germanic languages and has a long history in English. English speakers to avoid the construction and discourage its use. Outside linguistics the term grammar is often used in a rather different sense.
In some respects, it may be used more broadly, including rules of spelling and punctuation, which linguists would not typically consider to form part of grammar, but rather as a part of orthography, the set of conventions used for writing a language. In other respects, it may be used more narrowly, to refer to prescriptive grammar only and excluding those aspects of a language’s grammar that are not subject to variation or debate. Jeremy Butterfield claimed that, for non-linguists, “Grammar is often a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to.
The same Greek root also appears in graphics, grapheme, and photograph. Tolkāppiyam, the earliest Tamil grammar, is mostly dated to before the 5th century AD. Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, and Aemilius Asper. A grammar of Irish originated in the 7th century with the Auraicept na n-Éces.
Arabic grammar emerged with Abu al-Aswad al-Du’ali in the 7th century. The Karaite tradition originated in Abbasid Baghdad.
Ibn Barun in the 12th century compares the Hebrew language with Arabic in the Islamic grammatical tradition. Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian.