Hardness of water experiment pdf

This article hardness of water experiment pdf about large scale, municipal water purification. For other uses, see Purification of water.


Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Purifying water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, as well as reducing the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter. The standards for drinking water quality are typically set by governments or by international standards.

These standards usually include minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants, depending on the intended purpose of water use. Visual inspection cannot determine if water is of appropriate quality.

Simple procedures such as boiling or the use of a household activated carbon filter are not sufficient for treating all the possible contaminants that may be present in water from an unknown source. Chemical and microbiological analysis, while expensive, are the only way to obtain the information necessary for deciding on the appropriate method of purification.

4 billion annual cases of diarrheal disease are attributed to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation and hygiene, while 1. 8 million people die from diarrheal disease each year. Simple techniques for treating water at home, such as chlorination, filters, and solar disinfection, and storing it in safe containers could save a huge number of lives each year. Reducing deaths from waterborne diseases is a major public health goal in developing countries.

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