Horizontal pressure vessel in steel. A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. Pressure vessels can be dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the hse manual for construction pdf of their development and operation. Consequently, pressure vessel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation.
For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country. Construction is tested using nondestructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests.
Hydrostatic tests use water, but pneumatic tests use air or another gas. In most countries, vessels over a certain size and pressure must be built to a formal code.
The nameplate makes the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel. 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel banding and steel rods to secure the end caps. The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Codex Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air were theorized to lift heavy weights underwater, however vessels resembling what are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated in boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution. However, with poor material quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occurring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.