Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some believe it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether job descriptive index questionnaire pdf not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision. Others believe it is not as simplistic as this definition suggests and instead that multidimensional psychological responses to one’s job are involved.
The concept of job satisfaction has been developed in many ways by many different researchers and practitioners. 14 common facets: Appreciation, Communication, Coworkers, Fringe benefits, Job conditions, Nature of the work, Organization, Personal growth, Policies and procedures, Promotion opportunities, Recognition, Security, and Supervision. Job satisfaction scales vary in the extent to which they assess the affective feelings about the job or the cognitive assessment of the job.
Affective job satisfaction is a subjective construct representing an emotional feeling individuals have about their job. Hence, affective job satisfaction for individuals reflects the degree of pleasure or happiness their job in general induces.
Cognitive job satisfaction is a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction can be unidimensional if it comprises evaluation of just one facet of a job, such as pay or maternity leave, or multidimensional if two or more facets of a job are simultaneously evaluated.
Cognitive job satisfaction does not assess the degree of pleasure or happiness that arises from specific job facets, but rather gauges the extent to which those job facets are judged by the job holder to be satisfactory in comparison with objectives they themselves set or with other jobs. While cognitive job satisfaction might help to bring about affective job satisfaction, the two constructs are distinct, not necessarily directly related, and have different antecedents and consequences. Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues which affect an individual’s experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions.
A study title “Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of the Employees in Public and Private Sector”, in India concluded that in India Employees tend to love their job if they get what they believe is an important attribute of a good job. Weightage factor of each such attribute based on exhaustive survey has been calculated.
Region, sector and gender wise study of job satisfaction has provided consistent picture with respect to distribution of data set analyzed showed that most of the employees in Indian industry are not satisfied with their job except for a few like male in commerce sector and female in education sector. Total job satisfaction level of males is found to be higher than that of woman. Total job satisfaction level in manufacturing sector is found to be very low.
The assessment of job satisfaction through employee anonymous surveys became commonplace in the 1930s. Although prior to that time there was the beginning of interest in employee attitudes, there were only a handful of studies published.
Latham and Budworth note that Uhrbrock in 1934 was one of the first psychologists to use the newly developed attitude measurement techniques to assess factory worker attitudes. They also note that in 1935 Hoppock conducted a study that focused explicitly on job satisfaction that is affected by both the nature of the job and relationships with coworkers and supervisors. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B.