Joint and by product costing pdf

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Please forward this error screen to sharedip-10718051234. This article is about the environment impacts of products.

For the ultimate cost of business decisions, see Life-cycle cost analysis. Designers use this process to help critique their products.

Interpreting the results to help make a more informed decision. The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and services by quantifying all inputs and outputs of material flows and assessing how these material flows affect the environment.

This information is used to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound basis for informed decisions. The term life cycle refers to the notion that a fair, holistic assessment requires the assessment of raw-material production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product’s existence.

There are two main types of LCA. Social LCA is under development as a different approach to life cycle thinking intended to assess social implications or potential impacts.

Social LCA should be considered as an approach that is complementary to environmental LCA. ISO 14000 environmental management standards: in ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. ISO 14044 replaced earlier versions of ISO 14041 to ISO 14043. GHG product life cycle assessments can also comply with specifications such as PAS 2050 and the GHG Protocol Life Cycle Accounting and Reporting Standard.

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