The achievement gap in the United States refers to the observed, persistent disparity in measures of educational performance among subgroups of U. The achievement gap can be observed on a variety of measures, including standardized test scores, grade point average, dropout rates, jump math 4.2 pdf college enrollment and completion rates.
While this article focuses on the achievement gap in the United States, the gap in achievement between lower income students and higher income students exists in all nations and it has been studied extensively in the U. Various other gaps between groups exist around the globe as well. Department of Education, which found that a combination of home, community, and in-school factors have an impact on academic performance and contribute to the achievement gap.
According to American educational psychologist David Berliner, home and community environments have a stronger impact on school achievement than in-school factors, in part, because students spend more time outside of school than in school. In addition, the out-of-school factors influencing academic performance differ significantly between children living in poverty and children from middle-income households. Attempts to minimize the achievement gap by improving equality of access to educational opportunities have been numerous but fragmented, such as affirmative action, multicultural education, finance equalization, and interventions to improve school testing, teacher quality and accountability. The education of African Americans and some other minorities lags behind those of other U.