Language learning strategies is a term referring to the processes and actions that are consciously deployed by language learners to help them to learn or use a language more effectively. The term language learner strategies, which incorporates strategies used for language learning and language use, is sometimes used, although the line between the two is ill-defined as moments of second language use can also provide opportunities for learning. Language learning strategies were first introduced to the second language literature in 1975, with research on the good language learner. At the time it language learning strategies pdf thought that a better understanding of strategies deployed by successful learners could help inform teachers and students alike of how to teach and learn languages more effectively.
Initial studies aimed to document the strategies of good language learners. In the 80s the emphasis moved to classification of language learning strategies. In 1990, Rebecca Oxford published her landmark book “Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know” which included the “Strategy Inventory for Language Learning” or “SILL”, a questionnaire which was used in a great deal of research in the 1990s and early 2000s.
Controversy over basic issues such as definition grew stronger in the late 1990s and early 2000s, however, with some researchers giving up trying to define the concept in favour of listing essential characteristics. Others abandoned the strategy term in favour of “self regulation”.
Cognitive strategies, which involved mental manipulation or transformation of materials or tasks, intended to enhance comprehension, acquisition, or retention. As well as the mental control over personal affect that interfered with learning. This model was based on cognitive theory, which was commended, but it was also criticized for the ad hoc nature of its third category. Social—the interaction with other learners to improve language learning and cultural understanding.