Levels of programming languages pdf

For a detailed timeline of events, see Timeline of programming languages. This article discusses the major developments in the history of programming languages. Even though a huge number of computer languages exist, the earliest computers were programmed in levels of programming languages pdf so the set of instructions was just a series of 0 and 1. Computer languages are a fairly new field, since the first high-level languages were written in the 1950s, around the time computers were invented.

Before computer programming languages were made, paper tapes and punch cards which held complicated weaving patterns for the loom Tabulating Machine Company Looms by Jacquard in 1710. A century later, Charles Babbage started building a computing and the analytical Machine. In the 20th century, Herman Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine. His machine tabulators were used to speed up the counting and sorting of punch cards.

In the early 1940s J. Presper Eckert and John W. The very first high-level programming language was FORTRAN, which stands for FORmula TRANslation. John Backus, a worker at IBM.

FORTRAN’s goal was to ease the pain of writing in assembly language. When FORTRAN was first introduced, it was looked on suspiciously since almost all the programmers then only worked with the machine code and assembly languages.

The programmers at that time had an initial belief that programs compiled from high-level language would be less efficient than those written at low-level. In order to persuade potential users of the benefits of working with a high-level language, Backus designed an excellent compiler for FORTRAN so the programs were just as efficient as those written in low-level languages. This was the best compiler for many years.

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