The Yoga Sutras were compiled prior to 400 CE by Light on yoga sutras iyengar pdf Patanjali, taking materials about yoga from older traditions. The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali was the most translated ancient Indian text in the medieval era, having been translated into about forty Indian languages and two non-Indian languages: Old Javanese and Arabic.
The text fell into obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century, and made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda, the Theosophical Society and others. It gained prominence again as a comeback classic in the 20th century.
Before the 20th century, history indicates the Indian yoga scene was dominated by the Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Vasistha, texts attributed to Yajnavalkya and Hiranyagarbha, as well as literature on hatha yoga, tantric yoga and pashupata yoga rather than the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali. In the 20th century the western practitioners of yoga elevated the Yoga Sutras to a status it never knew previously. Scholars consider the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali formulations to be one of the foundations of classical Yoga philosophy of Hinduism. The Yoga Sūtras text is attributed to Patanjali.
Much confusion surrounds this Patañjali, because an author of the same name is credited to be the author of the classic text on Sanskrit grammar named Mahābhāṣya. Yet the two works in Sanskrit are completely different in subject matter. Maas assesses Patañjali’s Yogasutra’s date to be about 400 CE, based on tracing the commentaries on it published in the first millennium CE, and a review of extant literature. Edwin Bryant, on the other hand, surveys the major commentators in his translation of the Yoga Sūtras.
Bryant concludes that “A number of scholars have dated the Yoga Sūtras as late as the fourth or fifth century C. Michele Desmarais summarizes a wide variety of dates assigned to Yogasutra, ranging from 500 BCE to 3rd century CE, noting that there is a paucity of evidence for any certainty.
She states the text may have been composed at an earlier date given conflicting theories on how to date it, but latter dates are more commonly accepted by scholars. The Yoga Sutras are a composite of various traditions.
The levels of samādhi taught in the text resemble the Buddhist jhanas. The kriya yoga part is contained in chapter 1, chapter 2 sutra 1-27, chapter 3 except sutra 54, and chapter 4.