Please forward this error screen to 193. Please forward this error screen to 193. A microbiologist examining cultures under a dissecting microsope. Medical microbiology is a medical microbiology notes pdf of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion.
A medical microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. Using this information, a treatment can be devised.
Medical microbiologists often serve as consultants for physicians, providing identification of pathogens and suggesting treatment options. Other tasks may include the identification of potential health risks to the community or monitoring the evolution of potentially virulent or resistant strains of microbes, educating the community and assisting in the design of health practices. They may also assist in preventing or controlling epidemics and outbreaks of disease.
Whilst epidemiology is the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in populations, medical microbiology primarily focuses on the presence and growth of microbial infections in individuals, their effects on the human body and the methods of treating those infections. Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe microorganisms using a microscope. In 1676, Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed bacteria and other microorganisms, using a single-lens microscope of his own design. In 1796, Edward Jenner developed a method using cowpox to successfully immunize a child against smallpox.
The same principles are used for developing vaccines today. Following on from this, in 1857 Louis Pasteur also designed vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax, fowl cholera and rabies as well as pasteurization for food preservation. In 1867 Joseph Lister is considered to be the father of antiseptic surgery.
By sterilizing the instruments with diluted carbolic acid and using it to clean wounds, post-operative infections were reduced, making surgery safer for patients. In the years between 1876 and 1884 Robert Koch provided much insight into infectious diseases. He was one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture. This gave rise to the germ theory, a certain microorganism being responsible for a certain disease.