Mineralogy is a mixture of chemistry, optical mineralogy nesse pdf science, physics and geology. Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution, as well as their utilization. Early writing on mineralogy, especially on gemstones, comes from ancient Babylonia, the ancient Greco-Roman world, ancient and medieval China, and Sanskrit texts from ancient India and the ancient Islamic World. Systematic scientific studies of minerals and rocks developed in post-Renaissance Europe.
This was later generalized and established experimentally by Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l’Islee in 1783. René Just Haüy, the “father of modern crystallography”, showed that crystals are periodic and established that the orientations of crystal faces can be expressed in terms of rational numbers, as later encoded in the Miller indices.
In 1814, Jöns Jacob Berzelius introduced a classification of minerals based on their chemistry rather than their crystal structure. Henry Clifton Sorby showed that thin sections of minerals could be identified by their optical properties using a polarizing microscope. Dana published his first edition of A System of Mineralogy in 1837, and in a later edition introduced a chemical classification that is still the standard.