Photosynthesis in hindi pdf

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants photosynthesis in hindi pdf other things make food. It is a chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars the cell can use as energy. As well as plants, many kinds of algae, protists and bacteria use it to get food. Photosynthesis is very important for life on Earth.


Most plants either directly or indirectly depend on it. Photosynthesis can happen in different ways, but there are some parts that are common.

Photosynthesis has two main sets of reactions. The sunlight hits chloroplasts in the plant, causing an enzyme to break apart the water. Water, when broken, makes oxygen, hydrogen, and electrons.

Hydrogen, along with electrons energized by light, converts NADP into NADPH which is then used in the light-independent reactions. Oxygen diffuses out of the plant as a waste product of photosynthesis, and ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate. This all happens in the grana of chloroplasts. Therefore, the light-independent reaction cannot happen without the light-dependent reaction.

Carbon dioxide diffuses into the plant and along with chemicals in the chloroplast, ATP, and NADPH, glucose is made and finally, transported around the plant by translocation. Axis scale: millions of years ago.

If there is little light shining on a plant, the light-dependent reactions will not work efficiently. This means that photolysis will not happen quickly, and therefore little NADPH and ATP will be made. This shortage of NADPH and ATP will lead to the light-independent reactions not working as NADPH and ATP are needed for the light-independent reactions to work.

Carbon dioxide is used in the light-independent reactions. Therefore, if there is not enough carbon dioxide, then there will be a buildup of NADPH and ATP and not enough glucose will be formed. These enzymes will not work as well, or stop working at all at high or low temperatures and therefore, so will the light-dependent and light-independent reactions. The first photosynthetic organisms probably evolved early in the history of life.

They may have used reducing agents such as hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide as sources of electrons, rather than water. Cyanobacteria appeared later, and the excess oxygen they produced contributed to the oxygen catastrophe.

This made the evolution of complex life possible. Today, the average rate of energy capture by photosynthesis globally is approximately 130 terawatts, which is about six times larger than the current power used by human civilization. 115 thousand million metric tonnes of carbon into biomass per year.

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