Programming languages principles and practice pdf

For other meanings of object-oriented, see Programming languages principles and practice pdf-orientation. Object-oriented programming language” redirects here.

For a list of object-oriented programming languages, see List of object-oriented programming languages. In OOP, computer programs are designed by making them out of objects that interact with one another. There is significant diversity of OOP languages, but the most popular ones are class-based, meaning that objects are instances of classes, which typically also determine their type. Object Pascal, Java, Python etc.

Python, PHP, Ruby, Perl, Object Pascal, Objective-C, Dart, Swift, Scala, Common Lisp, and Smalltalk. Object-oriented programming uses objects, but not all of the associated techniques and structures are supported directly in languages that claim to support OOP. Variables that can store information formatted in a small number of built-in data types like integers and alphanumeric characters.

Modern languages include structured programming constructs like loops and conditionals. Modular programming support provides the ability to group procedures into files and modules for organizational purposes.

Modules are namespaced so code in one module will not be accidentally confused with the same procedure or variable name in another file or module. Languages that support object-oriented programming typically use inheritance for code reuse and extensibility in the form of either classes or prototypes.

Objects sometimes correspond to things found in the real world. For example, a graphics program may have objects such as “circle”, “square”, “menu”. An online shopping system might have objects such as “shopping cart”, “customer”, and “product”.

Sometimes objects represent more abstract entities, like an object that represents an open file, or an object that provides the service of translating measurements from U. Objects are accessed somewhat like variables with complex internal structure, and in many languages are effectively pointers, serving as actual references to a single instance of said object in memory within a heap or stack.

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