For a random Wikipedia article, see Special:Random. For random variables and probability distributions problems and solutions pdf about Wikipedia’s random article feature, see Wikipedia:Random. Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination.

For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, probability, and information entropy. The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness.

In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events. Random variables can appear in random sequences.

A random process is a sequence of random variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the various applications of randomness. Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties. By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasirandom number generators.

Note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not necessarily result in 1 red and 9 blue. In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable, a random selection mechanism requires equal probabilities for any item to be chosen.

That is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, of say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen then we can say the selection process is random. Ancient fresco of dice players in Pompei. In ancient history, the concepts of chance and randomness were intertwined with that of fate. Many ancient peoples threw dice to determine fate, and this later evolved into games of chance.

Most ancient cultures used various methods of divination to attempt to circumvent randomness and fate. The Chinese of 3000 years ago were perhaps the earliest people to formalize odds and chance.