Scrum is a framework for managing work with an emphasis on software development. 15-minute Daily Scrum meetings, to collaborate and scrum field guide pdf work on every sprint. Scrum of Scrums, among others.
Scrum is an iterative and incremental agile software development framework for managing product development. It defines “a flexible, holistic product development strategy where a development team works as a unit to reach a common goal”, challenges assumptions of the “traditional, sequential approach” to product development, and enables teams to self-organize by encouraging physical co-location or close online collaboration of all team members, as well as daily face-to-face communication among all team members and disciplines involved. As such, Scrum adopts an evidence-based empirical approach—accepting that the problem cannot be fully understood or defined up front, and instead focusing on how to maximize the team’s ability to deliver quickly, to respond to emerging requirements, and to adapt to evolving technologies and changes in market conditions. In the literature, this is occasionally seen in all capitals, as SCRUM.
While this is incorrect, as Scrum is not an acronym, it likely arose due to an early paper by Ken Schwaber which capitalized SCRUM in the title. Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka introduced the term scrum in the context of product development in their 1986 Harvard Business Review article, “New New Product Development Game”. The authors described a new approach to commercial product development that would increase speed and flexibility, based on case studies from manufacturing firms in the automotive, photocopier and printer industries. They called this the holistic or rugby approach, as the whole process is performed by one cross-functional team across multiple overlapping phases, where the team “tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth”.
In rugby football, a scrum is used to restart play, as the forwards of each team interlock with their heads down and attempt to gain possession of the ball. Over the following years, Schwaber and Sutherland collaborated to combine this material—with their experience and evolving good practice—to develop what became known as Scrum. In 2001 Schwaber worked with Mike Beedle to describe the method in the book, Agile Software Development with Scrum.
Scrum’s approach to planning and managing product development involves bringing decision-making authority to the level of operation properties and certainties. In 2002 Schwaber with others founded the Scrum Alliance and set up the certified scrum accreditation series.
Schwaber left the Scrum Alliance in late 2009 and founded Scrum. Since 2010, there is a public document called The Scrum Guide that defines sort of an official version of Scrum and is occasionally revised. There are three core roles in the Scrum framework. These are ideally co-located to deliver potentially shippable product increments every sprint.
Together these three roles form the scrum team. While many organizations have other roles involved with defining and delivering the product, Scrum defines only these three. Scrum teams should have one product owner. This role should not be combined with that of the scrum master.