# Second law of thermodynamics problems and solutions pdf

Please forward this error screen to 216. As one second law of thermodynamics problems and solutions pdf “forward” in time, the second law of thermodynamics says, the entropy of an isolated system can increase, but not decrease.

Hence, from one perspective, entropy measurement is a way of distinguishing the past from the future. However, in thermodynamic systems that are not closed, entropy can decrease with time: many systems, including living systems, reduce local entropy at the expense of an environmental increase, resulting in a net increase in entropy.

Examples of such systems and phenomena include the formation of typical crystals, the workings of a refrigerator and living organisms, used in thermodynamics. Much like temperature despite being an abstract concept everyone has an intuitive sense of the effects of entropy. For example, it is often very easy to tell the difference between a video being played forwards or backwards.

A video may depict a wood fire that melts a nearby ice block, played in reverse it would show that a puddle of water turned a cloud of smoke into unburnt wood and froze itself in the process. Surprisingly, in either case the vast majority of the laws of physics are not broken by these processes, a notable exception is the second law of thermodynamics.

When a law of physics applies equally when time is reversed it is said to show T-symmetry, in this case entropy is what allows one to decide if the video described above is playing forwards or in reverse as intuitively we identify that only when played forwards the entropy of the scene is increasing. Because of the second law of thermodynamics entropy prevents macroscopic processes showing T-symmetry.

When studying at a microscopic scale the above judgements can not be made. Watching a single smoke particle buffeted by air it would not be clear if a video was playing forwards or in reverse and in fact it would not be possible as the laws which apply show T-symmetry, as it drifts left or right qualitatively it looks no different.

It is only when you study that gas at a macroscopic scale that the effects of entropy become noticeable. On average you would expect the smoke particles around a struck match to drift away from each other, diffusing throughout the available space.

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