Look up Somali medical terminology pdf, SAM, or sam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Sequence Alignment Map, a data format used in bioinformatics. Sam languages, comprising Somali, Rendille and Boni, i. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Sam.
These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups. Further, even within these two broad usages of the term, there are different theoretical approaches. Human kinship relations through marriage are commonly called “affinity” in contrast to the relationships that arise in one’s group of origin, which may be called one’s descent group.
In some cultures, kinship relationships may be considered to extend out to people an individual has economic or political relationships with, or other forms of social connections. This may be conceived of on a more or less literal basis. Kinship can also refer to a principle by which individuals or groups of individuals are organized into social groups, roles, categories and genealogy by means of kinship terminologies. Degrees of relationship are not identical to heirship or legal succession.
Many codes of ethics consider the bond of kinship as creating obligations between the related persons stronger than those between strangers, as in Confucian filial piety. In a more general sense, kinship may refer to a similarity or affinity between entities on the basis of some or all of their characteristics that are under focus. This may be due to a shared ontological origin, a shared historical or cultural connection, or some other perceived shared features that connect the two entities. English word seven and the German word sieben.
It can be used in a more diffuse sense as in, for example, the news headline “Madonna feels kinship with vilified Wallis Simpson”, to imply a felt similarity or empathy between two or more entities. It may also be used in this specific sense when applied to human relationships, in which case its meaning is closer to consanguinity or genealogy. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children. Kinship terminologies include the terms of address used in different languages or communities for different relatives and the terms of reference used to identify the relationship of these relatives to ego or to each other.
Kin terminologies can be either descriptive or classificatory. When a descriptive terminology is used, a term refers to only one specific type of relationship, while a classificatory terminology groups many different types of relationships under one term. English-speaking societies use the word brother as a descriptive term referring to this relationship only. Most Australian Aboriginal kinship is also classificatory.
In many societies where kinship connections are important, there are rules, though they may be expressed or be taken for granted. There are four main headings that anthropologists use to categorize rules of descent.
They are bilateral, unilineal, ambilineal and double descent. Bilateral descent or two-sided descent affiliates an individual more or less equally with relatives on his father’s and mother’s sides. A good example is the Yako of the Crossriver state of Nigeria.