Projecting a sphere to squaring the circle geometry in art and architecture pdf plane. Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.
Although many of Euclid’s results had been stated by earlier mathematicians, Euclid was the first to show how these propositions could fit into a comprehensive deductive and logical system. The Elements begins with plane geometry, still taught in secondary school as the first axiomatic system and the first examples of formal proof.
It goes on to the solid geometry of three dimensions. Much of the Elements states results of what are now called algebra and number theory, explained in geometrical language. For more than two thousand years, the adjective “Euclidean” was unnecessary because no other sort of geometry had been conceived. Today, however, many other self-consistent non-Euclidean geometries are known, the first ones having been discovered in the early 19th century.