Techniques in organic chemistry mohrig pdf download

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The talk page may contain suggestions. Compounds which rotate light clockwise are said to be dextrorotary, and correspond with positive specific rotation values, while compounds which rotate light counterclockwise are said to be levorotary, and correspond with negative values. Specific rotation is an intensive property, distinguishing it from the more general phenomenon of optical rotation. The variance of specific rotation with wavelength—a phenomenon known as optical rotatory dispersion—can be used to find the absolute configuration of a molecule.

The concentration of bulk sugar solutions is sometimes determined by comparison of the observed optical rotation with the known specific rotation. Here θ is the Celsius temperature and λ the wavelength of the light at which the measurement is carried out. 1, which are typically shortened to just degrees, wherein the other components of the unit are tacitly assumed. These values should always be accompanied by information about the temperature, solvent and wavelength of light used, as all of these variables can affect the specific rotation.

As noted above, temperature and wavelength are frequently reported as a superscript and subscript, respectively, while the solvent is reported parenthetically, or omitted if it happens to be water. Optical rotation is measured with an instrument called a polarimeter. There is a linear relationship between the observed rotation and the concentration of optically active compound in the sample. There is a nonlinear relationship between the observed rotation and the wavelength of light used.

Specific rotation is calculated using either of two equations, depending on whether the sample is a pure chemical to be tested or that chemical dissolved in solution. When using this equation, the concentration and the solvent may be provided in parentheses after the rotation.

In these cases, measuring the rotation at several different concentrations allows one to determine the true value. Another method would be to use shorter path-lengths to perform the measurements. In cases of very small or very large angles, one can also use the variation of specific rotation with wavelength to facilitate measurement. Switching wavelength is particularly useful when the angle is small.

However, in practice the utility of this method is limited, as the presence of small amounts of highly rotating impurities can greatly affect the rotation of a given sample. Moreover, the optical rotation of a compound may be non-linearly dependent on its enantiomeric excess because of aggregation in solution.

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