It occurs along various axes: among universities, from universities to businesses, from large businesses to smaller ones, from governments to businesses, across borders, both formally and informally, and both openly and surreptitiously. Often it occurs by concerted effort to share skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing, and facilities among governments or universities and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can technology transfer methods pdf further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials, or services. Horizontal transfer is the movement of technologies from one area to another. Vertical transfer occurs when technologies are moved from applied research centers to research and development departments.
Technology transfer is promoted at conferences organized by such groups as the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation and the Association of University Technology Managers, and at “challenge” competitions by organizations such as the Center for Advancing Innovation in Maryland. Technology brokers are people who discovered how to bridge the emergent worlds and apply scientific concepts or processes to new situations or circumstances. A related term, used almost synonymously, is “technology valorisation”.
Xerox PARC and elsewhere, has led to a focus on the process itself. For instance, a research result may be of scientific and commercial interest, but patents are normally only issued for practical processes, and so someone—not necessarily the researchers—must come up with a specific practical process. The process to commercially exploit research varies widely.
It can involve licensing agreements or setting up joint ventures and partnerships to share both the risks and rewards of bringing new technologies to market. United States than in the European Union, which has a more conservative approach to VC funding.