For the ruler of Wu, see Zhongyong of Wu. This article includes a list of references, but the doctrine of the mean pdf sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.
The Doctrine of the Mean or Zhongyong is both a doctrine of Confucianism and also the title of one of the Four Books of Confucian philosophy. The text is attributed to Zisi or Kong Ji, the only grandson of Confucius. It was published as a chapter in the Classic of Rites. The Analects never expands on what this term means, but Zisi’s text, The Doctrine of the Mean, explores its meaning in detail, as well as how to apply it to one’s life.
The text was adopted into the canon of the Neo-Confucian movement, as compiled by Zhu Xi. Although Burton Watson translated Zhōngyōng as Doctrine of the Mean, other English-language translators have rendered it differently.
James Legge called it Constant Mean. Middle Way, while Arthur Waley chose Middle Use. Ezra Pound’s attempts include Unswerving Pivot, and Unwobbling Pivot. Hall titled their 2001 translation Focusing the Familiar.