The alphabetical list of philosophers is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. To look up a philosopher you know the the great philosophers pdf of, click on the first letter of his or her last name. To find philosophers by core area, field, major philosophical tradition, ethnicity, or time periods, see the subheadings further below. This page was last edited on 7 October 2017, at 01:55.
Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Do humans have free will? Historically, “philosophy” encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, “natural philosophy” encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics.
For example, Newton’s 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics. Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy.
For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one?
Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors, researchers, and writers.
However, many of those who study philosophy in undergraduate or graduate programs contribute in the fields of law, journalism, politics, religion, science, business and various art and entertainment activities. Traditionally, the term “philosophy” referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is closely related to religion, mathematics, natural science, education and politics.
This division is not obsolete but has changed. Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and cosmology. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others.