Shah Alam II and the Mughal imperial throne. Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor. He was the son of Alamgir II. Shah The mughal state muzaffar alam pdf II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire, his power was so depleted during his reign that it led to a saying in the Persian language, Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dilli ta Palam, meaning, ‘The kingdom of Shah Alam is from Delhi to Palam’, Palam being a suburb of Delhi.
Shah Alam faced many invasions mainly by the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat between the Maratha Empire, who maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi and the Afghans led by Abdali. In 1760, the invading forces of Abdali were driven away by the Marathas, led by Sadashivrao Bhau, who deposed Shah Jahan III, the puppet Mughal emperor of Feroze Jung III, and installed Shah Alam II as the rightful emperor under the Maratha suzerainty. Shah Alam II was considered the only and rightful emperor but he wasn’t able to return to Delhi until 1772, under the protection of the Maratha general Mahadaji Shinde.
He also fought against the British East India Company at the Battle of Buxar. Shah Alam II also authored his own Diwan of poems and was known by the pen-name Aftab. His poems were guided, compiled and collected by Mirza Fakhir Makin.
Aziz-ud-Din, son of the deposed Mughal Emperor Jahandar Shah, on 25 June 1728. Alongside his father, he grew up in semi-captivity in the Salatin quarters of the Red Fort. However, unlike the majority of Mughal princes growing up in similar circumstances, he is not recorded to have become a decadent prince by the time his father became emperor, and therefore was naturally given high appointments in the course of his father’s reign.
His quarrels with that amir, and fear for his own life, caused him to flee Delhi in 1758. Prince Ali Gauhar, afterwards Emperor Shah Alam II had been the heir apparent of his father Alamgir II. Prince Ali Gauhar’s father had been appointed Mughal Emperor by Vizier Feroze Jung III and Maratha Peshwa’s brother Sadashivrao Bhau who had completely dominated and later killed Alamgir II and kept Prince Ali Gauhar under surveillance. After a daring escape from Delhi, Prince Ali Gauhar appeared in the eastern provinces in 1759, hoping to strengthen his position by gaining control over Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.