The study skills book kathleen mcmillan pdf

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Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. Formative assessment, including diagnostic testing, is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.

It is commonly contrasted with summative assessment, which seeks to monitor educational outcomes, often for purposes of external accountability. Practice in a classroom is formative to the extent that evidence about student achievement is elicited, interpreted, and used by teachers, learners, or their peers, to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions they would have taken in the absence of the evidence that was elicited. Michael Scriven coined the terms formative and summative evaluation in 1967, and emphasized their differences both in terms of the goals of the information they seek and how the information is used.

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