An escape crew capsule is an escape capsule which allows one or the weight escape pdf occupants of an aircraft or spacecraft to escape from the craft while it is subjected to extreme conditions, such as high speed or altitude. The occupant remains encapsulated and protected until such time as the external environment is suitable for direct exposure or the capsule reaches the ground. The Convair B-58 Hustler Mach 2 bomber and North American XB-70 Valkyrie Mach 3 bomber prototype had individual encapsulated seats. A cabin ejection for the XB-70 Valkyrie was also tested.
The B-58’s capsule had a control stick, a bottle of oxygen, and a drogue chute. Three of the four Rockwell B-1A prototypes also used cabin ejection. Heinkel Flugzeugwerke built the first ejection-seat-equipped combat aircraft, the Heinkel He 219.
DFS 228 research aircraft, both of which had a jettisonable nose. The British design for a supersonic test aircraft Miles M. 52 of necessity had a jettisonable pilot capsule at the front of the aircraft.
The aircraft progressed no further than a nearly complete airframe before cancellation in 1946. The first American attempt to design such an escape capsule was for the U. It was tested in 1951-52 but was never installed in the aircraft. The Bell X-2, designed for flight in excess of Mach 3, could jettison the cockpit, though the pilot would still have to jump out and descend under his own parachute.
The first production aircraft with an escape crew capsule was the Mach 2 B-58 Hustler. It was developed by the Stanley Aviation Company for Convair.
The capsule was pressurized, sheltered the pilot from the airstream, and contained food and survival supplies. During testing of the “Stanley Capsule” in 1962, a bear became the first living creature to survive a supersonic ejection. The Mach 3 XB-70’s two crew escape capsules did not work well the only time they were needed.
2 was involved in a mid-air crash with an F-104 Starfighter. Carl Cross’s seat was unable to retract backwards into the escape capsule due to high-g-forces as the plane spiraled downwards. He died in the crash.