Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer who was one of the fathers of modern political Zionism. Herzl formed theodor herzl the jewish state pdf World Zionist Organization and promoted Jewish migration to Palestine in an effort to form a Jewish state.
Though he died long before its establishment, he is generally considered a father of the State of Israel, formed in 1948. While Herzl is often referred to as the first major Zionist activist, scholars such as Yehuda Bibas, Zvi Hirsch Kalischer and Judah Alkalai were promoting Zionist ideas before him.
Herzl is specifically mentioned in the Israeli Declaration of Independence. Herzl and his family, c.
He was the second child of Jeanette and Jakob Herzl, who were German-speaking, assimilated Jews. Herzl’s father, was a highly successful businessman. Herzl had one sister, Pauline, a year older than he was, who died suddenly on February 7, 1878, of typhus. Belváros, the inner city of the historical old town of Pest, in the eastern section of Budapest.
As a youth, Herzl aspired to follow in the footsteps of Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal, but did not succeed in the sciences and instead developed a growing enthusiasm for poetry and the humanities. This passion later developed into a successful career in journalism and a less-celebrated pursuit of playwrighting. Through Bildung, Herzl believed that Hungarian Jews such as himself could shake off their “shameful Jewish characteristics” caused by long centuries of impoverishment and oppression, and become civilized Central Europeans, a true Kulturvolk along the German lines. In 1878, after the death of his sister, Pauline, the family moved to Vienna, Austria-Hungary, and lived in the 9th district, Alsergrund.
At the University of Vienna, Herzl studied law. He later resigned in protest at the organisation’s antisemitism. After a brief legal career in the University of Vienna and Salzburg, he devoted himself to journalism and literature, working as a journalist for a Viennese newspaper and a correspondent for Neue Freie Presse, in Paris, occasionally making special trips to London and Istanbul. He later became literary editor of Neue Freie Presse, and wrote several comedies and dramas for the Viennese stage.
His early work did not focus on Jewish life. It was of the feuilleton order, descriptive rather than political. A plaque marking the birthplace of Theodor Herzl, Dohány Street Synagogue, Budapest. As the Paris correspondent for Neue Freie Presse, Herzl followed the Dreyfus affair, a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906.
It was a notorious antisemitic incident in France in which a Jewish French army captain was falsely convicted of spying for Germany. Herzl was witness to mass rallies in Paris following the Dreyfus trial. There has been some controversy surrounding the impact that this event had on Herzl and his conversion to Zionism.
Herzl himself stated that the Dreyfus case turned him into a Zionist and that he was particularly affected by chants of “Death to the Jews! This had been the widely held belief for some time. However, some modern scholars now believe that due to little mention of the Dreyfus affair in Herzl’s earlier accounts and a seemingly contrary reference he made in them to shouts of “Death to the traitor! Jacques Kornberg claims that the Dreyfus influence was a myth that Herzl did not feel necessary to deflate and that he also believed that Dreyfus was guilty.