Types of ventilation pdf

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Ventilation is a part of structural firefighting tactics, and involves the expulsion of heat and smoke from a fire building, permitting the firefighters to more easily and safely find trapped individuals and attack the fire.

If a large fire is not properly ventilated, not only will it be much harder to fight, but it could also build up enough poorly burned smoke to create a smoke explosion, or enough heat to create a flashover. Contrarily, poorly placed or timed ventilation may increase the fire’s air supply, causing it to grow and spread rapidly. Their names refer to the general locations of the intended exit points of the heat and smoke to be ventilated.

Vertical ventilation takes place through holes cut in the roof, typically by truck companies during the early stages of a fire in a process known collectively as roof operations, while horizontal ventilation usually takes place through doors and windows. While their goals are similar, their applications are different, but still both require good timing and coordination so that increased air flow through a structure doesn’t contribute to fire spread. If there is no suitable existing hole, firefighters may use their equipment to make one, such as specialised saws for cutting a large hole in the roof.

A conical hose-stream aimed around an opening -of a window or door, etc. This is a process called “hydraulic ventilation”. This strategy might be used when the fire is small and protecting property from smoke damage can be achieved safely. It can also be used more aggressively when a structure is “fully involved” and the smoke is obstructing the nozzlemans view of the hotspots.

High-rise buildings sometimes also incorporate fans to produce a positive pressure in stairwells and elevator shafts to reduce smoke infiltration into those spaces. When glass windows in a burning structure burst from internal pressure and heat, or the fire burns through the roof, it may be said to have “auto-ventilated” or “self-ventilated.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. This page was last edited on 19 December 2015, at 03:45.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Diagram of an endotracheal tube used in mechanical ventilation. The tube is inserted into the trachea in order to provide air to the lungs.

Endotracheal tube, which sits in the trachea. Inflatable Cuff, which facilitates the inflation of the balloon at the end of the tube to allow it to sit securely in the airway. The balloon can also be deflated via this cuff upon extubation. Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing.

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