Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. Dissolved water proofing compound pdf water, it is neither acidic nor alkaline. The body uses it in many processes, most notably nitrogen excretion.
Urea is widely used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen and is an important raw material for the chemical industry. Friedrich Wöhler’s discovery in 1828 that urea can be produced from inorganic starting materials was an important conceptual milestone in chemistry. It showed for the first time that a substance previously known only as a byproduct of life could be synthesized in the laboratory without biological starting materials, contradicting the widely held doctrine of vitalism.
A process plant in Bangladesh, that commercially produces urea as fertilizer by using methane as the main raw material. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use. Therefore, it has the lowest transportation costs per unit of nitrogen nutrient. Thus urea fertilizers rapidly transform to the ammonium form in soils.
Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, especially Nitrobacter, oxidize nitrite to nitrate, which is extremely mobile in soils because of its negative charge and is a major cause of water pollution from agriculture. Ammonium and nitrate are readily absorbed by plants, and are the dominant sources of nitrogen for plant growth.
Urea is also used in many multi-component solid fertilizer formulations. For fertilizer use, granules are preferred over prills because of their narrower particle size distribution, which is an advantage for mechanical application.
The most common impurity of synthetic urea is biuret, which impairs plant growth. Smaller applications incur lower losses due to leaching. Because of the high nitrogen concentration in urea, it is very important to achieve an even spread.
The application equipment must be correctly calibrated and properly used. Drilling must not occur on contact with or close to seed, due to the risk of germination damage.