This article is about world history and geography modern times mcgraw hill pdf history of humanity. For the entire history of Earth, see History of Earth.
For a field of historical study, see World history. The Neolithic saw the Agricultural Revolution begin, between 8000 and 5000 BCE, in the Near East’s Fertile Crescent. The Agricultural Revolution marked a fundamental change in history, with humans beginning the systematic husbandry of plants and animals. As agriculture advanced, most humans transitioned from a nomadic to a settled lifestyle as farmers in permanent settlements.
The relative security and increased productivity provided by farming allowed communities to expand into increasingly larger units, fostered by advances in transportation. Whether in prehistoric or historic times, people always had to be near reliable sources of potable water.
Cities developed on river banks as early as 3000 BCE, when some of the first well-developed settlements arose in Mesopotamia, on the banks of Egypt’s Nile River, in the Indus River valley, and along China’s rivers. As farming developed, grain agriculture became more sophisticated and prompted a division of labour to store food between growing seasons.