This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by x ray positioning book pdf x-ray excitation.
Early history of X-ray Spectroscopy in the U. When an electron from the inner shell of an atom is excited by the energy of a photon, it moves to a higher energy level.
Analysis of the X-ray emission spectrum produces qualitative results about the elemental composition of the specimen. These methods enable elements from the entire periodic table to be analysed, with the exception of H, He and Li. In an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a semiconductor detector measures energy of incoming photons.
To maintain detector integrity and resolution it should be cooled with liquid nitrogen or by Peltier cooling. Without any motion there will be just one wavelength detected. In contrast to EDS, WDS method is a method of sequential spectrum acquisition. While WDS is slower than EDS and more sensitive to positioning specimen in the spectrometer, it has superior spectral resolution and sensitivity.
The father-and-son scientific team of William Lawrence Bragg and William Henry Bragg, who were 1915 Nobel Prize Winners, were the original pioneers in developing X-ray emission spectroscopy. Jointly they measured the X-ray wavelengths of many elements to high precision, using high-energy electrons as excitation source. The cathode ray tube or an x-ray tube was the method used to pass electrons through a crystal of numerous elements. They also painstakingly produced numerous diamond-ruled glass diffraction gratings for their spectrometers.